Resources and Tools

Ready to get educated on lifestyle medicine and finance? Start with this list of essentials:

Key Stats on Costs of Chronic Disease

Download the LMERC Homepage key stats PDF.

Recommended Reading from the LMERC Evidence Database

Baxter S, Sanderson K, Venn AJ, Blizzard CL, Palmer AJ. The relationship between return on investment and quality of study methodology in workplace health promotion programs. Am J Health Promot. 2014;28(6):347-363.
Key Findings:Overall weighted ROI [mean ± standard deviation (confidence interval)] was 1.38 ± 1.97 (1.38–1.39), which indicated a 138% return on investment… Financial returns become increasingly positive across quasi-experimental nonexperimental, and modeled studies: 1.12 ± 2.16 (1.11–1.14), 1.61 ± 0.91 (1.56–1.65), and 2.05 ± 0.88 (2.04–2.06), respectively… Overall, mean weighted ROI in workplace health promotion demonstrated a positive ROI….Methodological quality and study design are important determinants..

Masters R, Anwar E, Collins B, Cookson R, Capewell S. Return on investment of public health interventions: a systematic review. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2017;71(8):827-834.
Key Findings:The median return on investment for public health interventions was 14.3 to 1, and median cost-benefit ratio was 8.3… This systematic review suggests that local and national public health interventions are highly cost-saving. Cuts to public health budgets in high income countries therefore represent a false economy, and are likely to generate billions of pounds of additional costs to health services and the wider economy.


Beckman K. An Actuarial Model to Improve Health and Reduce Costs. HEALTH WATCH. 2017.
Key Findings:Actuaries have consistently developed long-term, stable financial security systems based on objective data that continue to be successful because risk is controlled and reducedthe Actuarial Patient Value model pays direct cash rewards to health care providers for improving and then maintaining patient health. While there are other systems that offer incentives such as the Medicare Advantage (MA) risk adjustment mechanism and the Medicare Shared Savings Program, these tend to be of a short-term nature…


Cheng Q, Church J, Haas M, Goodall S, Sangster J, Furber S. Cost-effectiveness of a Population-based Lifestyle Intervention to Promote Healthy Weight and Physical Activity in Non-attenders of Cardiac Rehabilitation. Heart Lung Circ. 2016;25(3):265-274.
Key Findings: … The interventions consisted of pedometer-based telephone coaching sessions on weight, nutrition and physical activity (HW group) or physical activity only (PA group) and were compared to a control group who received information brochures about physical activity… both the HW and PA interventions are cost-effective compared with usual care… The results of this paper provide evidence of the long-term cost-effectiveness of home-based CR interventions for patients who are referred to CR but do not attend. Both the HW and PA interventions can be recommended as cost-effective home-based CR programs, especially for people lacking access to hospital services or who are unable to participate in traditional CR programs…


Johnson ST, Lier DA, Soprovich A, Mundt C, Johnson JA. How much will we pay to increase steps per day? Examining the cost-effectiveness of a pedometer-based lifestyle program in primary care. Preventive medicine reports. 2015;2:645-650.
Key Findings: The HEALD intervention cost $340 per participant over the 6-month follow-up. The difference in total costs (intervention plus health care utilization) was $102 greater per HEALD participant compared to usual care. The intervention group increased their physical activity by 918 steps/day [95% CI 116, 1666] compared to usual care. The resulting incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was $111 per 1000 steps/day, less than an estimated cost–effectiveness threshold… Increasing daily steps through an Exercise Specialist-led group program in primary care may be a cost-effective approach towards improving daily physical activity among adults with type-2 diabetes. Alternative delivery strategies may be considered to improve the affordability of this model for primary care…


Shurney D, Hyde S, Hulsey K, Elam R, Cooper A, Groves J. CHIP lifestyle program at Vanderbilt University demonstrates an early ROI for a diabetic cohort in a workplace setting: A case study. Journal of Managed Care Medicine. 2012;15(4):5-15.
Key Findings:The Vanderbilt CHIP study measured participants’ pre- and post-intervention health care costs (total medical and prescription drug) and health services utilization on a year-over-year (yOy) basis, and compared them with the costs and utilization of the other (non-intervened) diabetics of the plan… Our six-month findings provide evidence that with a program cost of ~$33,000 and savings of ~$99,000, implementing the CHIP program produced a 200% savings beyond the cost of the program…


Michaud TL, You W, Wilson KE, et al. Cost effectiveness and return on investment of a scalable community weight loss intervention. Prev Med. 2017;105:295-303.
Key Findings: … This study assessed the lifetime health and economic consequences of an efficacious scalable community weight loss program for overweight and obese adults… Simulation results showed that among 33,656 participants and at a cost of $2.88 million, the program was predicted to avert (with a corresponding estimated medical costs saved of) 78 cases of coronary heart disease ($28 million), 9 cases of strokes ($971,832), 92 cases of type 2 diabetes ($24 million), 1 case of colorectal cancer ($357,022), and 3 cases of breast cancer ($483,259) over the participant lifetime. The estimated medical costs saved per participant was $1403… and the ROI was $16.7 … for every $1 invested…


Banerjee S, Garrison LP, Jr., Flum DR, Arterburn DE. Cost and Health Care Utilization Implications of Bariatric Surgery Versus Intensive Lifestyle and Medical Intervention for Type 2 Diabetes. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2017;25(9):1499-1508.
Key Findings: There were no significant cost savings for RYGB versus ILMI patients through the follow‐up years. Pharmacy cost was lower for RYGB versus ILMI patients by about $900 in year 2 versus year 0; however, inpatient and emergency room costs were higher for surgery patients in follow‐up years relative to year 0. Median total cost for nonrandomized patients was higher in year 0 and in year 2 compared to randomized patients… Bariatric surgery is not cost saving in the short term…


Presentation: Payment Model for Lifestyle Medicine Practitioners

LMERC Advisory Board member and actuary Ken Beckman, ACAS, ASA, MAAA, CFA, of Central States Indemnity, describes his theoretical payment model for incentivizing healthcare providers to effect health improvements among patients, and funding those outcomes with long-term savings, as described in his paper, An Actuarial Model to Improve Health and Reduce Costs.









Click to access the webinar

Password: LMFinanciallyRewarding

ACLM Corporate Roundtable

The Corporate Roundtable of the American College of Lifestyle Medicine convenes healthcare and lifestyle thought leaders, with a keen focus on the power of Lifestyle Medicine to transform health and healthcare.

This prestigious group is limited in its membership, bringing together corporate, healthcare, foundation and policy leaders, working in collaboration with one another and with ACLM leadership to advance the mission and message of the Lifestyle Medicine movement. Roundtable members explore effective clinical applications, strategies for accelerating reimbursement and adoption, and analysis of potential business-related opportunities. The Corporate Roundtable works closely with the ACLM Board of Directors, Advisory Board and staff to ensure that innovative approaches are identified, evaluated, discussed and disseminated to ACLM members and to the medical community at large. In order to create opportunities for deeper engagement, members of the Roundtable are invited to participate in facilitated quarterly calls with ACLM Board members and staff, as well as in live, semi-annual Lifestyle Medicine Summits.

For more information, please send your inquiry to Director of Partnerships Martin Tull at


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